• Henry Quesada-Pineda
  • Robert Smith
  • Gunter Berger


CLT, building construction, CLT production, CLT drivers and barriers


According to several sources, CLT construction systems are an excellent structural choice for tall commercial and residential buildings, have excellent environmental performance, and provide an additional market for softwood and hardwood lumber. Besides and because of its engineered nature, CLT panels can be an excellent market for low value timber (lesser known species, diseased trees, infested trees, and low-grade timber). However, the US construction industry is not yet taking full advantage of the benefits of CLT construction systems due to several limiting factors including market and code acceptance, lack of knowledge, and local CLT panel manufacturing capacity. This last limiting factor is considered critical for the expansion of the US CLT market. Therefore, this research aims to investigate through a case study methodology the main challenges and barriers that CLT panel manufacturers in Western Europe had to overcome to successfully manufacture and commercialize CLT panels. It is expected that current engineered wood products firms, investors, and policy-makers will benefit from these results. Learning from failures, successes, and best practices of leading CLT companies in Western Europe can help support the potential development of CLT manufacturing capacity elsewhere.


American Plywood Association (APA). 2012. ANSI/APA PRG 320-2012: Standard for performance-rated cross-laminated timber. APA: The Engineered Wood Association. Tacoma, WA.

Brandner, R. 2013. Production and Technology of cross-laminated timber (CLT): A state-of-the-art report. The institute of materials, minerals, and mining. Available at Last access August 2017.

Crespell, P., and Gagnon, S. 2010. Cross Laminated Timber: A primer. FPInnovations. Special publication #52.

DraxBiomass. 2017. How wood pellets are revitalizing a community. Available at Last access August 2017.

Drouin, R. 2017. Wood pellets: Green energy or new source of C02 emissions? Yale Environment 360. Available at Last access August 2017.

Dwivedi, P., Khanna, M., Bailis, R. and Ghilardi, A. 2014. Potential greenhouse gas benefits of transatlantic wood pellet trade. Environment Research Letters. 9(2): 1-11.

Ekstrom, H. 2017. The Global Forestry Industry in the 1Q/2017. Available at Last access August 2017.

Evans, L. 2014. Cross Laminated Timber. reThink Wood, American Wood Council and FPInnovations. Available at Last access July 2017.

Green, M. 2012. The case for Tall Wood Buildings: How Mass Timber Offers a Safe, Economical, and Environmentally Friendly Alternative for Tall Building Structures. BTY Group, Equilibrium Consulting LMDG Ltd. February. Available at Last access December 2017.

Hindman, D., Loferski, J., Bond, B., Kline, E., and Quesada-Pineda, H.J. 2012. Development of Low-Grade Hardwood Cross-Laminated Timbers. Integrated Forest Products Grant, NIFA. Number 2012-34638-20333.

Howard, J., and McKeever, D. 2016. US Forest Products: Annual Market Review 2011-2015. US Forest Products Laboratory. Madison, WI.

Jefferies, H. 2016. United States Inventory and Harvest Trends on Privately-Owned Timberlands. National Alliance for Forest Owners. Available at Last access August 2017.

Kreuzlagenholz (KLH). 2017. About us. Available at Last access August 2017.

Laguarda Mallo, M. F., and Espinoza, O. A. 2014. Outlook for cross-laminated timber in the United States. BioResources, 9(4).

Lee, H., Hamid, S., and Zain, S. 2014. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process. The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 631013, 20 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/631013

Lippke, B., Wilson, J., Perez-Garcia, J., Bowyer, J., and Meil, J. 2004. Life Cycle Environmental Performance of Renewable Building Materials. Forest Products Journal. 54(6):8-19.

Lippke, B., Wilson, J., Meil, J., and Taylor, A. 2010. Characterizing the importance of carbon stored in wood products. Wood and Fiber Science. 42, 5-14.

Lippke, B., Oneil, E., Harrison, R., Skog, K., Gustavsson, L., and Sathre, R. 2011. Life Cycle Impacts of Forest Management and Wood Utilization on Carbon Mitigation: Knowns and Unknowns.Carbon Management. 2(3): 303-333.

Luppold, W., and Bumgardner, M. 2016. US hardwood lumber consumption and international trade from 1991 to 2014. Wood and Fiber Science. 48(3): 162-170

Oliver, C.D, Nassar, N. Lippke, B. and McCarter, J. 2014. Carbon, Fossil Fuel, and Biodiversity Mitigation With Wood and Forests. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 33(3): 248-275

Oswalt, S. N., Smith, W. B., Miles, P. D., and Pugh, S. A. (2014). Forest resources of the united states, 2012: A technical document

supporting the forest service 2015 update of the RPA assessment. gen. tech. rep. WO-91. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington Office. 218 p.: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Potter, K. M., and Conkling, B. L. (2014). Forest health monitoring: National status, trends, and analysis 2012 [General Technical Report SRS-198]. Asheville, NC: Forest Service.

Pei, S., Rammer, D., Popovski, M., Williamson, T., Line, P., and van de Lindt, J. 2016. An Overview of CLT Research and Implementation in North America. World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE). August 22-15. Vienna, Austria.

Popovski, M., and Gavric, I. 2016. Performance of a 2-story CLT house sujected to lateral loads. Journal of Structural Engineering. 142(4): E4015013

Qian, Y. and McDow, W. 2013. The Wood Pellet Value Chain. US Endowment for Forestry and Communities. Available at Last access August 2017.

ThinkWood. 2018. Tall Wood Gallery. Available at Last access May 2018.

Sadhukhan, J., Ng, K., and Martinez H., E. 2014. Biorefinieres and chemical processes. Wiley and Sons.

Torgelson, N. 2017. Cross-laminated timber. Seattle Department of Construction and Inspections. Available at Last access December 2017.

UNECE. 2015. Forest Products Annual Market Review 2014-2015. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available at Last access August 2017.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2015. Who owns America’s Trees, Woods and Forests? Publication number NRS-INF-31-15. Northern Research Station. March.

United States Census Bureau (USCB). 2017. Annual Survey of Manufacturers. Available at Last access August 2017.

Woodworks. 2017. Cross laminated timber. Wood Products Council. Available at Last access July 2017.

Yin, R. K. (2013). Case study research: Design and methods. Sage publications. 1 (2013) 1-23.






Empirical Manuscripts